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At least 1.5-2 hours before the race, aim to consume around 80-100g (320- 400 calories) of easy-to-digest carbohydrates, like a bagel, pita bread, waffle/pancakes, granola, or oatmeal with around 5-10g (20-40 calories) protein/fat (think: nut butter, egg, yogurt), along with ~16-20 ounces of fluid. Your pre-race meal should be very similar to what you have practiced before your longer workouts in training. While a cup of coffee is standard for caffeine lovers, avoid pre-race energy stimulants if you’re not used to them, since they can cause a rapid heartbeat, an increase in blood pressure, or an altered mental state. Instead, sip 8-12 ounces of sport drink (~80-120 calories) throughout the 90 minutes before the event to give your body an energy boost—that’s in addition to the 16-20 ounces you had at breakfast.
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Research shows that during exercise lasting an hour or less, you won’t fully deplete your glycogen stores (the at-the-ready fuel in your muscles and liver) enough to sabotage your performance. That said, ingesting carbs during shorter events may still boost performance. Sipping on a sugary sports drink—even if swished in your mouth and spit out—may reduce your perceived effort and delay fatigue.
Race day tip: On the bike, liquid nutrition will be the easiest to digest and absorb compared to gels, energy chews, and solid food. Stock your bike cage with one bottle of about 200 calories of sport drink with ~400-600mg sodium and plan to sip 3-4 ounces (1 gulp equals roughly 1 ounce) every 10-15 minutes of riding. It’s ok if you don’t finish the bottle. Off the bike, take a few gulps of sport drink (or a swig from a gel flask) every 10-15 minutes to perk yourself up on the run.