Under Pressure: Does Compression Apparel Work?

Promoting Recovery

Compression worn to promote recovery arguably has the most scientific backing. “I believe there may be recovery benefits—the primary of which is probably venous return from lower extremities,” says Friel, who wears compression for recovery after hard workouts and during air travel.

A 2007 study in the Journal of Sports Science showed that wearing compression reduced delayed-onset muscle soreness 24 hours after active males did 10K time-trial runs. Meanwhile, a study in the European Journal of Applied Physiology showed enhanced lactate removal with compression after trained males did max-effort cycling tests. And a 2009 study in The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research reported that some subjects felt less muscle soreness when they wore compression tights after doing sprint, agility and jumping tests.

Conversely, other studies show rest and ice baths were more effective than compression for recovery, or that compression did not boost recovery.

Anecdotally, many triathletes love their compression for recovery. Heidi Austin and Chloe Elfrink are age-group triathletes whose jobs aren’t conducive to quality recovery, so both wear compression while working. “As a marketing rep I am always in my car,” says Elfrink. “Compression is a lifesaver after a 15-mile run when I have a six-hour drive. Adds Austin: “As a physical therapist I often spend eight to nine hours of my day on my feet. To survive both the workday and my workouts, I rely on compression to keep the calf muscle pump functioning optimally.”

Compression may get people back to training and racing in better form, but it doesn’t it end there. Or does it?

Performance Improvement

It’s a stretch to say compression will get you to the finish line faster. “I suspect there is no performance benefit,” says Friel, citing research and his real-life experience. The idea can’t be completely shunned, however.

Another 2009 study in The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research found compression stockings improved running performance at submaximal intensities in moderately trained male runners. And a 2008 study on lower-body compression garments on cyclists in the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance reported increased power output and enhanced muscle oxygenation efficiency during shorter-duration cycling tests in well-trained male cyclists, but the same study found no performance gains in a one-hour time trial. In two studies of 10K time trial runs and 40-minute submax runs, the researchers in the 2007 Journal of Sports Science study measured many variables but showed only recovery benefits—no gains in performance.

Improving performance sometimes goes beyond time- and physiology-related variables. For those who’ve experienced injury or lower-limb issues, compression may act as a security blanket during activity. “After having a knee surgery to replace all of the torn ligaments in my knee, wearing compression during training gives me reassurance that everything is staying aligned and in place,” says Lauren Riley, an accountant training for Ironman. The reassurance Riley describes is a powerful mental component of compression that makes it “work”; it’s not as easy to quantitatively measure, but it’s effective.

The Placebo Effect?

The very idea that compression apparel works—and the confidence gleaned from that belief—is all the proof that many devotees need to justify their purchases. “Seeing pros using [compression products] and racing well adds to the age-groupers’ imagined probability of success,” says Friel. Andy Potts can’t cite specific markers of recovery or faster race times, but he still believes in compression. “They may not specifically add to physical performance, but the socks keep everything feeling in place,” he says. “They make training and racing not as ‘violent’ on the muscles. I think it’s worth the time to put them on [in T2]. For recovery, when the socks are on I’m not afraid of tweaking tendons, ligaments or muscles. I just elevate my feet and pay attention to getting blood flow back to the heart.”

Others, such as physical therapist Ron Gallagher, aren’t so easily convinced. “I think its effects are placebo,” he says. “We need to learn more about it.”

Bottom Line

Athletic compression is still in its infancy, and research to date is limited. There appears to be a better likelihood that it can help with recovery rather than with performance. The decision boils down to personal experience. If compression feels right for you and your needs, wear it. And if others give you a hard time, follow Michael Lovato’s lead and tell them: “Compress This!”

Tawnee Prazak (Tawneeprazak.com) CSCS, is a USAT-certified triathlon coach, personal trainer, exercise physiologist, triathlete and journalist.